Biography of Babur | Founder of Mughal Empire, Achievements & Death

Babur Summary

Babur was a Chaghatai Turkic-Mongol prince who founded the Mughal Empire in India. He was born in Andijan, Uzbekistan in 1483, and he was a direct descendant of both Genghis Khan and Timur on his father’s side. He conquered Afghanistan and established the Timurid dynasty there before invading the Indian subcontinent and defeating the Sultan of Delhi, Ibrahim Lodi, at the Battle of Panipat in 1526. Babur’s rule marked the beginning of the Mughal Empire in India, which lasted for over three centuries and saw the reigns of emperors such as Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan. Babur wrote his memoirs, known as the Baburnama, which provide a valuable account of life in Central Asia and India during the 16th century.

Babur Facts

Babur, Founder of Mughal Empire
Babur, Founder of the Mughal Empire
Born14 February 1483, Uzbekistan
Death 26 December 1530, (age 47) Agra, Mughal EmpireIndia
Wife Maham Begum
ParentsQutlugh Nigar Khanum > Umar Shaikh Mirza

Babur Early life

Babur was born on 14 February 1483 in Uzbekistan. Babur’s full name was Zahiruddin Mohammad Babur. The most important thing about him is that he was a descendant of Amir Timur and Genghis Khan. Zahiruddin Babur inherited the bravery of Amir Timur and Genghis Khan. The Sultanate of Amir Timur was divided into pieces. One of those sultanates was in the area of ​​Uzbekistan. After that, this sultanate came under Babur’s part.

Taking the Throne

When Babur sat on the throne of the Sultanate, he was only 13 years old, but then suddenly Babur’s uncle revolted against him, despite not wanting to, Babur had to fight with his uncle and then the Sultanate walked with Babur’s hand. After that, he wandered in the jungles for many years, Babur had spent his 30 years wandering in the forests, for him, many days were so difficult that Babar had to spend two times bread in the forests.

There was no luck but Babur never gave up. When Babur realized that he would not be able to take back the Sultanate of his father, he intended to conquer Afghanistan instead of taking back his Sultanate. Conquered some areas and after conquering the areas left for India.


Babur married several times throughout his life, primarily for political and strategic reasons. Some of his marriages were arranged by his parents or other family members, while others were contracted for the purpose of forming alliances with other rulers and powers.

Babur had several children from his marriages, including his son and successor, Humayun. He was a loving and devoted father and took a keen interest in the upbringing and education of his children.

Despite the political nature of many of his marriages, Babur was known to be a romantic and passionate person, and he wrote extensively about his love for his wives and his affection for his children in the Baburnama.

Overall, Babur’s marriage life was an important aspect of his personal and political life and played a significant role in shaping the Mughal Empire and its future. Despite the challenges he faced, Babur’s marriages and family relationships were marked by love, devotion, and affection, and remain an important part of his legacy today.

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Ruler of Fargana

In 1494, after the death of Umar Shaikh Mirza, the eleven-year-old Babur became the ruler of Fargana, which is in present-day Uzbekistan, but Babur’s uncle wanted to dethrone him. was able to secure the throne, although there was some luck involved. At the time, rival princes were fighting over the city of Samarkand in the west, which was ruled by his paternal cousin. He besieged Samarkand for seven months before finally gaining control of it. He was fifteen and for him, the expedition was a great achievement. Babur was able to capture the city despite the desertion in his army, but he later fell seriously ill.

In 1500–1501, he again laid siege to Samarkand, and in fact, briefly held the city, but was in turn besieged by his most formidable rival, Muhammad Shaybani, Khan of the Uzbeks. Tidvandvi was besieged by Muhammad Shaybani, Khan of the Uzbeks. The situation became such that Babur was forced to marry his sister Khanzada to Shaybani as part of the peace settlement. They took refuge with hill tribes wandering the mountains of Central Asia. He went to his mother in Tashkand for help but she also did not help him and then Babur started preparing an army. And then attacked Samarkand so fast that in a short time, he defeated Muhammad Shaybani.

At Kabul

In 1504, Babur was invited to replace the Lodi dynasty in Kabul, Afghanistan. He established himself as the ruler of Kabul and its surrounding regions, and he ruled there until 1519. During this time, Babur faced numerous challenges and threats, both from within his own territory and from neighboring states. Despite these challenges, he was able to maintain his rule in Kabul and expand his territories.

Invitation to Replace Lodi

The invitation to replace the Lodi dynasty in Kabul, Afghanistan, was extended to Babur in the early 16th century. The Lodi dynasty was in a state of decline, and various regional powers were vying for control of the territory. Babur, who was a Chaghatai Turkic-Mongol prince and a descendant of Timur, was invited by the cousin of Ibrahim Lodi who was the governor of Punjab to replace the Lodi dynasty and establish his rule in Kabul.

Babur accepted the invitation and established himself as the ruler of Kabul and its surrounding regions. He ruled there until 1519 when Babur was invited to invade India and establish the Mughal Empire.

The invitation to replace the Lodi dynasty marked the beginning of Babur’s reign in Kabul and the establishment of his rule in the region. It was a significant event in the history of Afghanistan and the broader region, as it set the stage for the formation of the Mughal Empire in India and the eventual spread of the Mughal influence throughout the region.

Babur Victory of India

First Battle of Panipat

At the time when Babur had entered India to conquer India, Babur had an army of only 13 thousand. And his competition was with the Sardar of the Pathan Sultanate i.e. Ibrahim Lodhi. Ibrahim Lodi had about one lakh army, Ibrahim Lodi also felt that he could easily defeat Babur because Ibrahim Lodhi had one lakh soldiers, as well as thousands of elephants, who were present in everything Ibrahim Babur had less in comparison to Lodi.

The soldiers were also less and less armed and there were no elephants. But even after that, Babur had full confidence that he would easily defeat Ibrahim Lodhi because Babur had such a weapon that no one had seen in India before today, nor in any war of India before today, such a weapon. Was used and that weapon was Babur’s dangerous cannons.

Then on April 21, 1526, the first Battle of Panipat took place between Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur and Ibrahim Lodi in the field of Panipat. In the battle of Panipat, when Ibrahim Lodi saw that my army was more powerful than Babur, he issued an order to attack his entire army together in the open field, but perhaps this was the biggest mistake of Ibrahim Lodi, Babur When I saw that the entire army of Ibrahim Lodhi was attacking openly,

Babar ordered all his artillerymen to fire guns. All the elephants of Ibrahim Lodhi went mad after hearing the dangerous sound of the cannons, all elephants of Ibrahim Lodhi started running backward and the running elephants went on crushing the thousands of Ibrahim Lodhi’s soldiers, due to which there was a stampede in the entire army of Lodhi.

When Babur saw such conditions of his enemy, he ordered his small army of 13 thousand to attack together. This attack of Babur was so fast that even after wanting Lodhi could not stop that attack and Ibrahim Lodhi was also killed in this battle. In this way, Babur had got his first fate in India and with the victory of this war, Babur laid the foundation of the Mughal Sultanate in India.

After defeating Lodhi, Zahiruddin Babur entered Delhi with Puri, at that time all the forts of Delhi were occupied by Lodhi’s family, but Babar got Ibrahim Lodi’s mother to vacate the fort with the condition that I am Lodhi. I will not say anything to any member of the family, nor will anyone be harmed or harmed.

Babar himself has also written in Babarnama that he used to give mother status to Lodi’s mother and used to call her mother only. But after a few years, Ibrahim Lodi’s mother crossed the limit to avenge the defeat of her son Ibrahim Lodi and even mixed poison in the food, but when Babur came to know about this, Babur imprisoned her. And after that it is said that after a few days, Ibrahim Lodi’s mother had died in the prison itself.

Battle of Khanwa

The first trouble that Babur faced after sitting on the Delhi Sultanate was Rana Sanga, the king of Mewar because Rana Sanga was not ready to accept Babur’s sultanate. And you will be surprised to know that it was Rana Sanga who had called Babur to India. (Jade Amjad) i.e. Amir will go back like Timur only after conquering India and plundering it and when the Lodhi sultanate is plundered then all of us Rajputs together will establish a big sultanate but that he has even the slightest doubt about it. It was not that after defeating Ibrahim Lodi,

Babur would start a sultanate in India. Along with this, he had also promised that he would support Babur in the war against Ibrahim Lodi, but when Babur was fighting against Ibrahim Lodi in India, Rana Sanga was watching all this while sitting in his own area and Babar was not helping Babur because of this also Babar was angrier with Rana Sanga and after 1 year of becoming Sultan After this,

on 17 March 1527, the battle of Khanwa took place between Rana Sanga and Babur. And even in this war, Babur had defeated Rana Sanga’s army in a few moments with his tremendous intelligence and cannons. He started running but Babur did not pursue Rana Sanga. And the battle of (Battle of Khanwa) was won by Babur. It is said that Rana Sanga died exactly one year after he was defeated by Babur.

After this, the battle of Chanderi took place between Babur and Medni Rai on 29 March 1528 and Babur won in this too. And after this Babur fought his last war which took place on 6 May 1529 AD between Mughal (Babur) and Sultanate-e-Bangal (Battle of Ghagra) which was known as the Battle of Ghagra and this war In this also the Mughal emperor Zehruddin Muhammad Babur won.

Battle of Chanderi

The Battle of Chanderi (20 January 1528) was fought between the Mughal emperor Babur and the Rajput king Medini Rai of Chanderi in present-day Madhya Pradesh, India, in the early 16th century.

The battle was a result of the Mughal expansion into central India and their attempts to capture the strategically important fortress of Chanderi. Medini Rai, the Rajput king of Chanderi, resisted the Mughal advance and defended his kingdom with a large army.

Despite being outnumbered, Babur was able to defeat Medini Rai and capture the fortress of Chanderi. The Mughal victory in this battle was a significant milestone in their expansion into India and helped to establish their control over central India.

Babur’s tactics and strategies in the Battle of Chanderi, such as his use of artillery and mobility, played a crucial role in his victory. The battle also demonstrated the strength and determination of the Mughal army, which would go on to conquer much of India and establish one of the largest and most powerful empires in the world.

Battle of Ghaghara

The Battle of Ghaghara was fought in 1529 between the Mughal emperor Babur and the Afghan king, Sultan Ibrahim Lodi of the Lodi dynasty. It was one of the major battles in Babur’s conquest of India and marked the end of the Lodi dynasty’s rule in northern India.

The battle took place near the Ghaghara River near Chhapra Bihar, India. Babur led his army against Sultan Ibrahim Lodi, who was determined to resist the Mughal invasion and protect his kingdom.

Babur’s army was well-equipped and better trained than the Afghan forces, and he was able to use his superior tactics and strategies to defeat the Afghan king. The Mughal victory in the Battle of Ghaghara marked the beginning of their rule over northern India and paved the way for the establishment of the Mughal Empire in India.

Today, the Battle of Ghaghra is remembered as a significant moment in the history of India and South Asia, and is considered a turning point in the Mughal conquest of India. It highlights the military prowess of the Mughal emperors and the determination of Babur to establish his rule over India.

Death of Babur

Death of Babur
Death of Babur

Babur saved Humayun’s life by giving his life 

The story about Babur’s death is also famous for Babur’s son i.e. Humayun, whom Babur used to love very much, once became very ill, Babur was very upset after seeing Humayun sick.

Used to stay Even after millions of efforts, Humayun did not regain consciousness. He was treated in every way. If you want to cure my son, then take my life in return) and one day Humayun came to his senses. But as soon as Humayun came to his senses, Babar fainted and since then Babur started to be ill and Babar died as soon as his beloved son Humayun was completely cured.

Tomb of Babur

Tomb of Babur
Tomb of Babur

Talking about the tomb of Babur outside, Babur had advised that after his death, he should be buried with his parents in his old homeland i.e. Kabul, so Babur was buried by his son Humayun in Babur Garden, Kabul, He was buried in (Afghanistan) itself, even today the tomb of Babur is present in the city of Kabul.


Baburnuma-Book of Babur

The Baburnama was written by Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, in which Babur wrote about his entire life. Babur has also written about the political and economic situation of that period in Baburnama. Baburnama is written in the Chagatai language; Chagatai is the Turkish language.

Babri Masjid

Babri Masjid
Babri Masjid

If anything related to Babar is most famous in today’s era, then it is Babri Masjid. Babri Masjid was built by Mir Baqi, a great general of Babar and today many people live in the misconception that Babri Masjid was built by Babar and this is their big misconception because Babri Masjid was not built by Babar, but Babar was once in Ayodhya. Neither did he go nor there is any evidence of Babur coming to Ayodhya.

People Also Ask?

What was Babur known for?

Babur was a Chaghatai Turkic-Mongol prince and Founder of the Great Mughal Empire in India.

Who invited the Mughals to India?

Daulat Khan Lodi

Why Babur was not buried in India?

Babur liked Afghanistan very much, due to which he was buried in Kabul, Afghanistan and his burial is called Bagh-e-Babur.

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